It pays to be careful when picking up logs from the woodpile at this time of year. I turned this one over to find four queen wasps hibernating underneath.
I took photos of the individuals to check on the species (they are all Vespula vulgaris).
One of them started to stir and unfolded its antennae.
Then I noticed it had what looks like the shed exoskeleton of a tiny spider on its head.
I moved them all to a different log pile where they can sleep through until the spring.